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Associations, Research Organisations and Universities
Geologist studies environment of prehistoric man
National Laboratory : 02 June, 2007
In the Afar Rift system of Ethiopia, a new species of human ancestor has been discovered and a geologist from the Department of Energy's Los Alamos National Laboratory played a significant role in determining the geology of the 2.5-million-year-old fossil and its environmental setting.
 
Concrete made stronger and tougher with bone-shaped wires
National Laboratory : 02 June, 2007
Department of Energy's Los Alamos National Laboratory researchers have discovered that enlarging the ends of small wires mixed into concrete substantially increases the material's overall strength and toughness. The Los Alamos team found that adding the unique steel wires in amounts equal to just one percent of the concrete's volume increases its maximum strength by as much as 84 percent, and its toughness by as many as 93 times.
 
Solitary vibrations in uranium observed by scientists
National Laboratory : 02 June, 2007
Scientists in Los Alamos have recently observed experimental evidence of solitary vibrations (solitons) in a solid. First observed as localized waves on the surface of water more than a century ago, the concept of solitons in solids was only theorized as possible two decades ago.
 
University of Chicago screening method turns up potential compound for treating anthrax
University : 02 June, 2007
Scientists at the University of Chicago screened 10,000 small molecules for activity against anthrax lethal factor using peptide arrays and mass spectrometry. These two techniques permit scientists to rapidly assess the chemical and biological activity of molecules.
 
Scientists prepare most advanced supercomputer simulation of an exploding star ever attempted
University : 02 June, 2007
A Senior Research Associate in the Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes and Astronomy & Astrophysics, Tomasz Plewa, is expecting a simulation to reveal the mechanics of exploding stars, called supernovae, in unprecedented detail.
 
Academic achievement gap between white & black students could be resolved with smaller classes
University : 02 June, 2007
Research by Diane Whitmore, an Assistant Professor in the Irving B. Harris Graduate School of Public Policy indicates that smaller classes may offer a solution to a puzzling and disturbing gap in academic achievement between white and black students.
 
Systemic treatment ahead of surgery for kidney cancer extends patients
Professional Society : 02 June, 2007
Initial results from a phase II clinical trial have shown that treating patients with kidney cancer with bevacizumab and erlotinib1 prior to surgery is safe, effective and may extend patients' survival.
 
University of Chicago research shows America
University : 01 June, 2007
Research by the National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago suggests that the increasing secularization of American society has taken a particular toll on Protestant identity, presenting the prospect that after more than 200 years of history, the United States may soon no longer be a majority Protestant country.
 
Nanoparticles mystery concealed in the blink of an eye
University : 01 June, 2007
University of Chicago scientists have found an improved method of measuring a confounding property of microscopic high-tech particles called quantum dots. Quantum dots, also called nanocrystals, emit light in a rainbow of colors and are used in lasers, biological studies and other applications, but their tendency to blink hinders their technological value. Imagine the annoyance caused by a randomly flickering light bulb.
 
Galaxy formation theory does not conflict with observations
University : 01 June, 2007
Astrophysicists, led by Andrey Kravtsov of the University of Chicago, have resolved an embarrassing contradiction between a key theory of how galaxies form and what astronomers see in their telescopes.
 
Theory discovers middle ground between conflicting evidence for first stars
University : 01 June, 2007
The massive first stars produce the first metals (heavy elements) in their interiors and eject them in exploding stars (supernovae). These metals are then incorporated into new star-forming clouds, which are able to form low-mass stars that live long enough to be found in the galaxy today. These long-lived stars preserve a 'fossil record' from the earliest phases of metal enrichment in the galaxy.
 
Researchers can now say that cancer genes are detectable smokers' breath.
Professional Society : 01 June, 2007
Researchers say they can now detect 'cancer genes' in the breath of smokers, and also test the presence of two proteins in men they say will predict development of prostate cancer a decade in advance. Scientists at the American Association for Cancer Research's Frontiers say ths shows how it is becoming increasingly possible to use genes and their protein products to help predict and diagnose cancer, as well as choose therapy that offers the most potential for a good result.
 
PSA-activated protoxin has been designed which can kill prostate cancer
Professional Society : 01 June, 2007
A new way has been found that can find and destroy prostrate cancer by using a protein. The new treatment studies show that it only affected the prostate and did not affect any other tissue.
 
Apoptotic and anti-angiogenic therapies have proven to work
Professional Society : 01 June, 2007
American researchers have discoverd that a combination of a drug that induces cell death (apoptosis) and imantanib (Glivec1) has returned an improved performance at proventing the growth of Ewing's sarcoma in mice than either therapy on its own.
 
Los Alamos releases new maps of Mars water
National Laboratory : 31 May, 2007
'Breathtaking' new maps of likely sites of water on Mars showcase their association with geologic features such as Vallis Marineris, the largest canyon in the solar system.
 
Lab microdrilling technology can cut cost of oil exploration
National Laboratory : 31 May, 2007
A microdrilling technology developed by the Department of Energy's Los Alamos National Laboratory could fundamentally change the face of oil and gas exploration, a multi-billion-dollar a year global industry.
 
Los Alamos partners with CNT Technologies to commercialize SuperThread(tm) carbon-nanotube fiber
National Laboratory : 31 May, 2007
Los Alamos National Laboratory has licensed its carbon nanotube technology to a new commercial partner, Seattle-based CNT Technologies Inc. The ultrastrong, lightweight carbon-nanotube fiber, branded SuperThread(tm) by the company, can have better properties than steel for many applications and could soon be the primary substance from which airplanes, automobile parts, and sports equipment are made. Initial tests show that SuperThread is pound for pound (for the same weight) one-hundred times stronger than steel and less than one-fortieth the weight.
 
Air bubbles in breakfast syrup illustrate potential pathway to new technology
University : 31 May, 2007
Wendy Zhang, Assistant Professor in Physics, watches an air bubble form a long, thin stem in a viscous fluid. Scientists might be able to use air bubbles to make extremely thin tubes and fibers for biomedical and other applications.
 
Scientists zero in on why time flows in one direction
University : 31 May, 2007
Sean Carroll, Assistant Professor in Physics, and Jennifer Chen, graduate student in physics at the University of Chicago. They are co-authors of a paper presenting a theory about how our universe could give rise to new big bangs from quantum fluctuations in empty space.
 
Quark study breaks logjam between theory, experiment
University : 31 May, 2007
University of Chicago scientists have solved a 20-year-old puzzle in particle physics using data from an experiment conducted for an entirely different purpose. Physicists had long known that something was amiss regarding their understanding of how some quarks interact in the beta decay of particles, a common form of radioactivity. Either dozens of experiments conducted over a period of more than three decades were wrong, or the scientists
 
Vast nitrogen reserves hidden beneath desert soils
National Laboratory : 30 May, 2007
A University of California scientist working at Los Alamos National Laboratory in collaboration with researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, the University of Nevada, the University of Arkansas and Desert Research Institute in Reno, Nev., has recently found evidence that there may be significantly more amounts of nitrogen, in the form of nitrates, than previously estimated in desert landscapes.
 
Superdiamonds? Scientists discover superconductivity in diamond
National Laboratory : 30 May, 2007
Scientists working at the Russian Academy of Sciences and Los Alamos National Laboratory announced today the discovery of superconductivity at ultracold temperatures in cubic diamond. The discovery offers the potential for a new generation of diamond-based device applications and even suggests that superconductivity in silicon or germanium, which also forms in the diamond structure, may be possible.
 
Los Alamos Pulsed Field Facility achieves world record magnetic field in 100-tesla quest
National Laboratory : 30 May, 2007
Scientists at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory's Pulsed Field Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory have set a pair of world records for nondestructive pulsed-magnet performance that puts them in position to deliver a magnet capable of achieving 100 tesla, the longstanding goal of magnet designers and researchers around the globe.
 
Study resolves doubt about origin of Earth
University : 30 May, 2007
A study led by Nicolas Dauphas of the University of Chicago and Chicago's Field Museum has clarified the sedimentary origin of the world's oldest rocks, reinforcing the possibility that they contain the earliest evidence for life on Earth. These rocks are found in southwest Greenland, including Iron Mountain of the Issua region pictured here.
 
Rocks could hold early secrets of life
University : 30 May, 2007
Experiments led by Nicolas Dauphas of the University of Chicago and Chicago
 
Chemist breaks 50-year-old barrier to better electron representation in molecular computations
University : 30 May, 2007
University of Chicago quantum chemist David Mazziotti has proposed a new research tool that could help scientists more rapidly solve problems in atmospheric chemistry, combustion, medicine and other areas of research where the behavior of electrons plays a key role.
 
Novel vaccine shows promise against early stage breast cancer
Professional Society : 30 May, 2007
A diagnosis of breast cancer has taken on a new meaning in the past 10 years, as research has produced a host of new therapies and detection techniques, significantly improving long-term survival for women who have been fighting the disease. To build on these successes, researchers are now harnessing what they have learned about treating breast cancer and applying it to possible methods of prevention to reduce the total incidence of the disease.
 
Desert varnish shines as environmental monitoring tool
National Laboratory : 29 May, 2007
A University of California researcher working at Los Alamos National Laboratory, in collaboration with earth scientists from the University of Nevada, Las Vegas and Eastern Washington University, has discovered that desert varnish, a thin brownish to black coating that forms naturally on rock surfaces in deserts and other arid places all over the world, may be an ideal passive environmental monitor for atmospherically-deposited heavy and potentially toxic metals, including radionuclides.',
 
Los Alamos unleashes GENIE on Cerro Grande destruction
National Laboratory : 29 May, 2007
The U.S. Department of Energy's Los Alamos National Laboratory is using a sophisticated image analysis technology to create high-resolution maps of the destruction caused by the Cerro Grande wildfire.
 
Replacing platinum with non-precious metal composite could reduce cost of hydrogen fuel cells
National Laboratory : 29 May, 2007
Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory have developed a new class of hydrogen fuel-cell catalysts that exhibit promising activity and stability. The catalysts are made of low-cost nonprecious metals entrapped in something called a heteroatomic-polymer structure, instead of platinum materials typically used in fuel cells.
 
Revealing a secret in plain sight: air makes liquids go splash
University : 29 May, 2007
Photographs of a drop of alcohol hitting a smooth, dry, glass surface. Each row shows the drop at four times. The first frame shows the drop just as it is about to hit the surface. The next three frames in each row show the evolution of the drop at .276 milliseconds, .552 milliseconds and 2.484 milliseconds after impact. In the top row, the drop splashes at atmospheric pressure (100 kilopascals).
 
Teaching math two ways at the same time boosts learning
University : 29 May, 2007
Researchers at the University of Chicago have come up with a technique for teachers to use that increases student understanding of mathematics: explain how to solve a problem in one way, and also provide an alternative approach through gesture.
 
New study affirms reliability of fossil record
University : 29 May, 2007
The quality of the fossil record has passed a critical test, as indicated by a study of bivalves conducted by Susan Kidwell, Professor in Geophysical Sciences at the University of Chicago.
 
Dry rock goes supercritical
National Laboratory : 28 May, 2007
By proposing a method for using carbon dioxide under high pressure to extract energy from geothermal reservoirs, a University of California scientist working at Los Alamos National Laboratory has put a new twist on a historic Laboratory project. The proposed invention has the potential to take global geothermal energy science in new and exciting directions.
 
Los Alamos Volcanologist: apply lessons from meteorology
National Laboratory : 28 May, 2007
Reducing the danger posed by volcanoes will require volcanologists to integrate data from throughout volcanology to build predictive simulations and models, according to Greg Valentine, a volcanologist at the Department of Energy's Los Alamos National Laboratory.
 
One-of-a-kind magnet open for science
National Laboratory : 28 May, 2007
The world's most powerful pulsed, nondestructive magnet is now ready to explore the frontiers of high magnetic field science, after 10 years of research, major instrument development, and construction.
 
Religious faith has big impact on reducing depression among African Americans
University : 28 May, 2007
A strong belief in God can have a powerful impact on reducing depression, particularly among African Americans, according to a preliminary analysis of data gathered in the study of aging and social relations on health at the University of Chicago.
 
Feat of experimental acrobatics leads to first synthesis of ultracold molecules
University : 28 May, 2007
The experiments, conducted by Cheng Chin, now at the University of Chicago, and his colleagues under the leadership of Rudolf Grimm at Innsbruck University in Austria, may lead to a better scientific understanding of superconductivity and advance a growing new field called superchemistry. In the long term, they may also provide a strategy that could aid the development of quantum computers.
 
Mystery minerals formed in fireball from colliding asteroid that destroyed the dinosaurs
University : 28 May, 2007
After an asteroid measuring six miles in diameter collided with Earth 65 million years ago, the skies filled with a bizarre rain of calcium-rich, silicate liquid droplets. This rain reflected the chemical content of the vaporized rocks around the Chicxulub impact crater in Mexico.
 
What does the public really know about HPV?
Professional Society : 28 May, 2007
Human papillomaviruses are the most common sexually transmitted infections in the United States, and certain 'high risk' types have been shown to cause cervical cancer. Despite recent advances in the detection and prevention of HPV, the link between the virus and cervical cancer is not well known to the public. The Food and Drug Administration approved the first vaccine to prevent infection of two high risk types of HPV, and two types that cause genital warts. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended it for females 9 to 26 years of age.
 
Los Alamos instrument yields new knowledge of Saturn's rings
National Laboratory : 27 May, 2007
University of California scientists working at Los Alamos National Laboratory have begun to analyze data from an instrument aboard the joint U.S.-European spacecraft Cassini. Although Cassini has only been orbiting the planet Saturn since July 1, data from the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer has already begun to provide new information about the curious nature of Saturn's space environment.
 
Telling a salty tale of martian water
National Laboratory : 27 May, 2007
University of California scientists working at Los Alamos National Laboratory, along with a scientist from Indiana University have devised a method for determining whether sulfate salts can account for evidence of water on Mars. The work could pave the way to a better understanding of the martian environment and the history of water on Mars.
 
Scientists study carbon exchange in Valles Caldera grasslands
National Laboratory : 27 May, 2007
Over the past nine months, University of California scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory have been working as part of the AmeriFlux carbon exchange research project with researchers from the Valles Caldera National Preserve and Colorado State University using sophisticated eddy monitors, monitors that detect minute changes in wind flow, to study carbon dioxide flow variations and grassland carbon cycle dynamics in a small section of the Valles Caldera.
 
Economics research shows black-white achievement gap has stopped narrowing
University : 27 May, 2007
The achievement gap between African-Americans and whites, which narrowed for much of the 20th century, has stalled and is likely to persist for generations unless something is done to improve the learning experiences of African-American children, contends new research at the University of Chicago. Derek Neal, Professor of Economics at the University of Chicago, is the author of an upcoming chapter,
 
Instrument detects particles near Saturn
University : 27 May, 2007
An instrument designed and built at the University of Chicago for the Cassini space probe has discovered dust particles around Enceladus, an ice-covered moon of Saturn that has the distinction of being the most reflective object in the solar system. The particles could indicate the existence of a dust cloud around Enceladus, or they may have originated from Saturn
 
Genetic & natural chemicals further knowledge on how early molecular interactions lead to cancer
Professional Society : 27 May, 2007
Scientists are using genetic studies and natural chemicals, such as plant-derived triterpenoids, to further our knowledge on how genetic and early molecular interactions can lead to cancer, and how those early interactions can be manipulated to stave off a variety of cancers. The latest studies with new and promising chemopreventive agents were presented at the American Association for Cancer Research's Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research meetinG.
 
Scientists predict pulsar starquakes
National Laboratory : 26 May, 2007
Scientists have discovered how to predict earthquake-like events in pulsars, the dense remains of exploded stars. These are violent episodes that likely crack a pulsar's dense crust and momentarily increase its spin rate.
 
High energy gamma rays may emanate in the Milky Way
National Laboratory : 26 May, 2007
Los Alamos scientists, in collaboration with researchers from nine institutions across the United States, have evidence from the Laboratory's Milagro telescope that TeV (one trillion electron volts) gamma rays, the most energetic form of electromagnetic radiation known, can originate in the plane of the Milky Way galaxy. The discovery is the first evidence of such high-energy gamma rays arising from interactions of cosmic rays with matter in our galaxy.
 
Drought, heat and bark beetles a deadly trio
National Laboratory : 26 May, 2007
Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory, working in collaboration with scientists from the University of Arizona, Northern Arizona University, the U. S. Geological Survey, and four additional universities, believe that severe drought, coupled with high temperatures and a bark beetle coup de grace, was the cause of death for millions of pi
 
Los Alamos studies nerve activity to improve artificial retina
National Laboratory : 26 May, 2007
Los Alamos National Laboratory is supporting the Department of Energy's artificial retina project by developing better ways to visualize and interpret the patterns of neural activity that result when the retina is stimulated. Employing new and existing techniques, a team from Los Alamos' Biological and Quantum Physics Group has produced movies of the dynamic responses that characterize the function of the ganglion cells that make up the optic nerve.
 
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